Teos-based consolidants for stone conservation: evaluation of the effects and testing by x-ray imaging

Bacilieri, Ginevra (2013) Teos-based consolidants for stone conservation: evaluation of the effects and testing by x-ray imaging. [Laurea specialistica a ciclo unico], Università di Bologna, Corso di Studio in Ingegneria edile/ architettura [TU-DM509], Documento ad accesso riservato.
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Natural stones have been widely used in the construction field since antiquity. Building materials undergo decay processes due to mechanical,chemical, physical and biological causes that can act together. Therefore an interdisciplinary approach is required in order to understand the interaction between the stone and the surrounding environment. Utilization of buildings, inadequate restoration activities and in general anthropogenic weathering factors may contribute to this degradation process. For this reasons, in the last few decades new technologies and techniques have been developed and introduced in the restoration field. Consolidants are largely used in restoration and conservation of cultural heritage in order to improve the internal cohesion and to reduce the weathering rate of building materials. It is important to define the penetration depth of a consolidant for determining its efficacy. Impregnation mainly depends on the microstructure of the stone (i.e. porosity) and on the properties of the product itself. Throughout this study, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) applied on globigerina limestone samples has been chosen as object of investigation. After hydrolysis and condensation, TEOS deposits silica gel inside the pores, improving the cohesion of the grains. X-ray computed tomography has been used to characterize the internal structure of the limestone samples,treated and untreated with a TEOS-based consolidant. The aim of this work is to investigate the penetration depth and the distribution of the TEOS inside the porosity, using both traditional approaches and advanced X-ray tomographic techniques, the latter allowing the internal visualization in three dimensions of the materials. Fluid transport properties and porosity have been studied both at macroscopic scale, by means of capillary uptake tests and radiography, and at microscopic scale,investigated with X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (XTM). This allows identifying changes in the porosity, by comparison of the images before and after the treatment, and locating the consolidant inside the stone. Tests were initially run at University of Bologna, where characterization of the stone was carried out. Then the research continued in Switzerland: X-ray tomography and radiography were performed at Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, while XTM measurements with synchrotron radiation were run at Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di laurea (Laurea specialistica a ciclo unico)
Autore della tesi
Bacilieri, Ginevra
Relatore della tesi
Corso di studio
Ordinamento Cds
Parole chiave
consolidation, X-ray tomography, radiography, TEOS, application techniques, stone, restoration
Data di discussione della Tesi
19 Dicembre 2013

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