Tetrafenilciclopentadienon-derivati ed analoghi: sintesi, "self-assembly" e caratterizzazione reologica

Genasi, Alice (2012) Tetrafenilciclopentadienon-derivati ed analoghi: sintesi, "self-assembly" e caratterizzazione reologica. [Laurea magistrale], Università di Bologna, Corso di Studio in Chimica industriale [LM-DM270]
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Gels are materials that are easier to recognize than to define. For all practical purpose, a material is termed a gel if the whole volume of liquid is completely immobilized as usually tested by the ‘tube inversion’ method. Recently, supramolecular gels obtained from low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) have attracted considerable attention in materials science since they represent a new class of smart materials sensitive to external stimuli, such as temperature, ultrasounds, light, chemical species and so on. Accordingly, during the past years a large variety of potentialities and applications of these soft materials in optoelectronics, as electronic devices, light harvesting systems and sensors, in bio-materials and in drug delivery have been reported. Spontaneous self-assembly of low molecular weight molecules is a powerful tool that allows complex supramolecular nanoscale structures to be built. The weak and non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, π–π stacking, coordination, electrostatic and van der Waals interactions are usually considered as the most important features for promoting sol-gel equilibria. However, the occurrence of gelation processes is ruled by further “external” factors, among which the temperature and the nature of the solvents that are employed are of crucial importance. For example, some gelators prefer aromatic or halogenated solvents and in some cases both the gelation temperature and the type of the solvent affect the morphologies of the final aggregation. Functionalized cyclopentadienones are fascinating systems largely employed as building blocks for the synthesis of polyphenylene derivatives. In addition, it is worth noting that structures containing π-extended conjugated chromophores with enhanced absorption properties are of current interest in the field of materials science since they can be used as “organic metals”, as semiconductors, and as emissive or absorbing layers for OLEDs or photovoltaics. The possibility to decorate the framework of such structures prompted us to study the synthesis of new hydroxy propargyl arylcyclopentadienone derivatives. Considering the ability of such systems to give π–π stacking interactions, the introduction on a polyaromatic structure of polar substituents able to generate hydrogen bonding could open the possibility to form gels, although any gelation properties has been never observed for these extensively studied systems. we have synthesized a new class of 3,4-bis (4-(3-hydroxy- propynyl) phenyl) -2, 5-diphenylcyclopentadienone derivatives, one of which (1a) proved to be, for the first time, a powerful organogelator. The experimental results indicated that the hydroxydimethylalkynyl substituents are fundamental to guarantee the gelation properties of the tetraarylcyclopentadienone unit. Combining the results of FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence emission spectra, we believe that H-bonding and π–π interactions are the driving forces played for the gel formation. The importance of soft materials lies on their ability to respond to external stimuli, that can be also of chemical nature. In particular, high attention has been recently devoted to anion responsive properties of gels. Therefore the behaviour of organogels of 1a in toluene, ACN and MeNO2 towards the addition of 1 equivalent of various tetrabutylammonium salts were investigated. The rheological properties of gels in toluene, ACN and MeNO2 with and without the addition of Bu4N+X- salts were measured. In addition a qualitative analysis on cation recognition was performed. Finally the nature of the cyclic core of the gelator was changed in order to verify how the carbonyl group was essential to gel solvents. Until now, 4,5-diarylimidazoles have been synthesized.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di laurea (Laurea magistrale)
Autore della tesi
Genasi, Alice
Relatore della tesi
Corso di studio
Ordinamento Cds
Parole chiave
organogel, sintesi, "self assembly", tetrafenilciclopentadienon-derivati, reologia
Data di discussione della Tesi
19 Ottobre 2012

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