Study of the effectiveness of crystal growth modifiers in the prevention of damage due to crystallization of sodium carbonates in stone artworks

Samperisi, Laura (2017) Study of the effectiveness of crystal growth modifiers in the prevention of damage due to crystallization of sodium carbonates in stone artworks. [Laurea magistrale], Università di Bologna, Corso di Studio in Chimica industriale [LM-DM270]
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The disintegration of stone materials used in sculpture and architecture due to the crystallization of salts is capable of irreparably damaging artistic objects and historic buildings. A number of phosphonates and carboxylates were tested here as potential crystallization modifiers for sodium carbonate crystallization. Precipitated phases during crystallization induced either by cooling or by evaporation tests were nahcolite (NaHCO3), natron (Na2CO3∙10H2O) and thermonatrite (Na2CO3∙H2O), identified using X-ray diffraction. By using the thermodynamic code PHREEQC and the calculation of the nucleation rate it was demonstrated that nahcolite had to be first phase formed during both tests. The formation of the other phases depended on the experimental conditions under which the two tests were conducted. Nahcolite nucleation is strongly inhibited in the presence of sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate (CA), polyacrylic acid 2100MW (PA) and etidronic acid (HEDP), when the additives are dosed at appropriate concentrations and the pH range of the resulting solution is about 8. Electrostatic attraction generated between the deprotonated organic additives and the cations present in solution appears to be the principal mechanism of additive-nahcolite interaction. Salt weathering tests, in addition to mercury intrusion porosimetry tests allowed to quantify the damage induced by such salts. FESEM observation of both salts grown on calcite single crystals and in limestone blocks subjected to salt crystallization tests allowed to identify the effect of these additives on crystal growth and development. The results show that PA seems to be the best inhibitor, while CA and HEDP, which show similar behaviors, are slightly less effective. The use of such effective crystallization inhibitors may lead to more efficient preventive conservation of ornamental stone affected by crystallization damage due to formation of sodium carbonate crystals.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di laurea (Laurea magistrale)
Autore della tesi
Samperisi, Laura
Relatore della tesi
Correlatore della tesi
Corso di studio
Ordinamento Cds
Parole chiave
sodium carbonate crystallization modifiers stone artworks
Data di discussione della Tesi
10 Ottobre 2017

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