Design of an indirectly fired gas turbine integrated with an organic rankine cycle unit for combined heat and power production

Cesari, Simone (2016) Design of an indirectly fired gas turbine integrated with an organic rankine cycle unit for combined heat and power production. [Laurea magistrale], Università di Bologna, Corso di Studio in Ingegneria energetica [LM-DM270], Documento ad accesso riservato.
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In the last years, the European countries have paid increasing attention to renewable sources and greenhouse emissions. The Council of the European Union and the European Parliament have established ambitious targets for the next years. In this scenario, biomass plays a prominent role since its life cycle produces a zero net carbon dioxide emission. Additionally, biomass can ensure plant operation continuity thanks to its availability and storage ability. Several conventional systems running on biomass are available at the moment. Most of them are performant either in the large-scale or in the small power range. The absence of an efficient system on the small-middle scale inspired this thesis project. The object is an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT) integrated with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit for combined heat and power production. The WIFGT is a performant system in the small-middle power range; the ORC cycle is capable of giving value to low-temperature heat sources. Their integration is investigated in this thesis with the aim of carrying out a preliminary design of the components. The targeted plant output is around 200 kW in order not to need a wide cultivation area and to avoid biomass shipping. Existing in-house simulation tools are used: They are adapted to this purpose. Firstly the WIFGT + ORC model is built; Zero-dimensional models of heat exchangers, compressor, turbines, furnace, dryer and pump are used. Different fluids are selected but toluene and benzene turn out to be the most suitable. In the indirectly fired gas turbine a pressure ratio around 4 leads to the highest efficiency. From the thermodynamic analysis the system shows an electric efficiency of 38%, outdoing other conventional plants in the same power range. The combined plant is designed to recover thermal energy: Water is used as coolant in the condenser. It is heated from 60°C up to 90°C, ensuring the possibility of space heating. Mono-dimensional models are used to design the heat exchange equipment. Different types of heat exchangers are chosen depending on the working temperature. A finned-plate heat exchanger is selected for the WIFGT heat transfer equipment due to the high temperature, oxidizing and corrosive environment. A once-through boiler with finned tubes is chosen to vaporize the organic fluid in the ORC. A plate heat exchanger is chosen for the condenser and recuperator. A quasi-monodimensional model for single-stage axial turbine is implemented to design both the WIFGT and the ORC turbine. The system simulation after the components design shows an electric efficiency around 34% with a decrease by 10% compared to the zero-dimensional analysis. The work exhibits the system potentiality compared to the existing plants from both technical and economic point of view.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di laurea (Laurea magistrale)
Autore della tesi
Cesari, Simone
Relatore della tesi
Correlatore della tesi
Corso di studio
Ordinamento Cds
Parole chiave
IFGT WIFGT ORC Biomass Wood_chips Plate_heat_exchanger Finned-plate_heat_exchanger District_heating
Data di discussione della Tesi
17 Marzo 2016

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